"Адыгэбзэжъэ" версиэм я зэщхьэщыкӀыгъуэ

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| straight man || zaːxʷa || захуэ || zaːfa || зафэ || zaːfa || зафэ || zaːxʷa || захуэ
|}
 
====Uvular affricates====
The consonant aspirated [[voiceless uvular stop]] [qʰ] {{angle bracket|къʰ}} and its [[Labialization|labialized]] counterpart [qʰʷ] {{angle bracket|къʰу}} survived in [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]. In the Temirgoy dialect they become къ {{IPAblink|q}} and къу [qʷ] while in Shapsug dialect they become хъ {{IPAblink|χ}} and хъу [χʷ]. In [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]] they became [[affricate consonant|affricate]] [[voiceless uvular affricate]] [q͡χ] {{angle bracket|кхъ}} and [[Labialization|labialized]] [[voiceless uvular affricate]] [q͡χʷ] {{angle bracket|кхъу}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="6"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| son || qʷa || къо || qʷa || къо || qʷa || къо || qʷa || къо || qʷa || къуэ
|-
| man || χʷəɬxʷəʁa || хъулъхугъэ || χʷəɬfəʁa || хъулъфыгъэ || qʷəlfəʁa || къулфыгъэ || χʷəɬfəʁa || хъулъфыгъэ || χʷəɬxʷəʁa || хъулъхугъэ
|-
| grave || qʰa || къʰэ || qa || къэ || χa || хъэ || qʰa || къʰэ || q͡χa || кхъэ
|-
| male || χʷə || хъу || χʷə || хъу || χʷə || хъу || χʷə || хъу || χʷə || хъу
|-
| pig || qʰʷa || къʰо || qʷa || къо || χʷa || хъо || qʰʷa || къʰо || q͡χʷa || кхъуэ
|-
| cheese|| ? || ? || q͡ʷaːja || къуае || χʷaːja || хъуае || ? || ? || q͡χʷej || кхъуей
|-
| voice/sound || ? || ? || maːqa || макъэ || maːχa || махъэ || ? || ? || maːq || макъ
|-
| ship || ? || ? || qʷəħa || къухьэ || qʷaħ || къохь || ? || ? || q͡χʷaħ || кхъухь
|-
| ant || ? || ? || qaːmzaɡʷ || къамзэгу || χaːnzaɡʷ || хъанзэгу || ? || ? || χʷəmpʼat͡sʼad͡ʒ || хъумпӏэцӏэдж
|-
| peer || ? || ? || qʷəʐə || къужъы || qʷəʐə || къужъы || ? || ? || q͡χʷəʑə || кхъужьы
|}
 
====Lateral affricates====
In the Proto-Circassian there existed an [[alveolar lateral ejective affricate]] *[t͡ɬʼ]. This consonant survived in the [[Besleney language|Besleney]] dialect of Kabardian . In most Circassian dialects it become an [[alveolar lateral ejective fricative]] [ɬʼ].<ref name="UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive - Recording Details for Kabardian Baslanei dialect">[http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/KBD/kbd.html UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive - Recording Details for Kabardian Baslanei dialect]. In the first word list called [http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/KBD/kbd_word-list_1970_01.html kbd_word-list_1970_01.html] the word "dress" is pronounced as {{IPA|/ɡʲaːna/}} compare to Standard Kabardian {{IPA|/d͡ʒaːna/}}. The words "man" and "quarter" are pronounced as {{IPA|/t͡ɬʼə/}} and {{IPA|/pt͡ɬʼaːna/}} compare to Standard Kabardian {{IPA|/ɬʼə/}} and {{IPA|/pɬʼaːna/}}</ref>
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="6"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Besleney language|Besleney]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| four || pt͡ɬʼə || птлӏы || pɬʼə || плӏы || pɬʼə || плӏы || pɬʼə || плӏы || pɬʼə || плӏы || pt͡ɬʼə || птлӏы
|-
| to die || mat͡ɬʼan || мэтлӏэн || maɬʼan || мэлӏэн || maɬʼan || мэлӏэн || maɬʼan || мэлӏэн || maɬʼan || мэлӏэн || mat͡ɬʼan || мэтлӏэн
|-
| man/husband || t͡ɬʼə || тлӏы || ɬʼə || лӏы || ɬʼə || лӏы || ɬʼə || лӏы || ɬʼə || лӏы || t͡ɬʼə || тлӏы
|}
 
There also existed [[voiced alveolar lateral affricate]] *[d͡ɮ] that become [ɣ] in Adyghe and [ʒ] in Kabardian and a palatalized [[voiced velar fricative]] *[ɣʲ] that become [ɣ] in Adyghe and [ʑ] in Kabardian.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="6"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| rip || t͡saːd͡ɮa || цадлэ || t͡saːɣa || цагэ || t͡saːɣa || цагэ || t͡saːɣa || цагэ || d͡zaːʒa || дзажэ
|-
| to wash, to launder || ɣʲət͡ʃʼan || гыкӏэн || ɣət͡ʃʼan || гыкӏэн || ɣət͡ʃʼan || гыкӏэн || ɣət͡ʃʼan || гыкӏэн || ʑəɕʼan || жьыщӏэн
|}
 
====Ejective plosive====
The consonants [[glottal stop]] [ʔ] and labialized [[glottal stop]] [ʔʷ] in Proto-Circassian may have come from [[uvular ejective]] [qʼ] and labialized [[uvular ejective]] [qʷʼ]. In the [[Hakuchi Adyghe dialect|Hakuchi dialect]] it is pronounced as [qʼ] and [qʷʼ].<ref name="adygeya-republic phonetic changes ">[http://adygeya-republic.info/adyghe-language/detalno/foneticheskie-izmenenija-soglasnykh/laringalizacija/ Ларингализация]</ref>
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="2"| Word
! colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! rowspan="2"| [[Ubykh language|Ubykh]]
! colspan="2"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| two || tʼqʷʼə ~ tʔʷə || тӏыкъӏу || tʼqʷʼa || tʷʼə || тӏу || tʼəw || тӏу
|-
| to say || qʼan ~ ʔʷan || къӏуэн || qʼan || ʔʷan || ӏон || ʔʷan || ӏуэн
|-
| hand || ʔa ~ qʼa || къӏэ || ? || ʔa || ӏэ || ʔa || ӏэ
|-
| table || ʔaːna ~ qʼaːna || къӏанэ || ? || ʔaːna|| ӏанэ || ʔaːna|| ӏанэ
|-
| hat || paːqʷʼa ~ paːʔʷa || пакъӏуэ || ? || paːʔʷa || паӏо || ? || ?
|}
 
===Aspirated and tense===
The reflexes of a series of obstruent consonants, described as "tense" or "geminate". In Kabardian, they become simple voiced consonants, while in Adyghe, the outcome depends on the dialect: in Bzhadugh, these remain as tense, in Temirgoy, they become simple voiceless consonants.
 
====Aspirated consonants====
 
* Proto-Circassian [[aspirated consonant|aspirated]] тʰ {{IPAblink|ʰ|tʰ}} survived in the [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug dialect]] and in other Circassian dialects it became [[plain consonant|plain]] т {{IPAblink|t}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]] and [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| respect || pχaːtʰa || пхъатʰэ || pχaːtʰa || пхъатʰэ || pχaːta || пхъатэ || - || -
|-
| to disband || tʼatʰan || тӏэтʰэн || tʼatʰan || тӏэтʰэн || tʼatan || тӏэтэн || tʼatan || тӏэтэн
|-
| to give || jatʰən || етʰын || jatʰən || етʰын || jatən || етын || jatən || етын
|-
| to take || ʃtʰan || штʰэн || ʃtʰan || штʰэн || ʃtan || штэн || ɕtan || щтэн
|-
| on || tʰajt || тʰет || tʰajt || тʰет || tajt || тет || tajt || тет
|-
| smooth || t͡sʼaːsʷtʰa || цӏасутʰэ || t͡sʼaːʃʷtʰa || цӏашъутʰэ || t͡sʼaːʃʷta || цӏашъутэ || t͡sʼaːfta || цӏафтэ
|-
| to afraid || ɕtʰan || щтʰэн || ɕtʰan || щтʰэн || ɕtan || щтэн || ɕtan || щтэн
|-
| pillow || ʂħaːntʰa || шъхьантʰэ || ʂħaːntʰa || шъхьантʰэ || ʂħaːnta || шъхьантэ || ɕħaːta || щхьатэ
|}
 
* Proto-Circassian [[aspirated consonant|aspirated]] пʰ {{IPAblink|ʰ|pʰ}} survived in the [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug dialect]] and in other Circassian dialects it became [[plain consonant|plain]] п {{IPAblink|p}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="6"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]] and [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| sharp || pʰaːpt͡sʼa || пʰапцӏэ || pʰaːpʰt͡sʼa || пʰапцӏэ || paːpt͡sʼa || папцӏэ || paːpsʼa || папсӏэ || папцӏэ || paːpt͡sʼa
|-
| arrogant || pʰaːɣa || пʰагэ || pʰaːɣa || пʰагэ || paːɣa || пагэ || paːɣa || пагэ || paːɣa || пагэ
|-
| nose || pʰa || пʰэ || pʰa || пʰэ || pa || пэ || pa || пэ || pa || пэ
|}
* Proto-Circassian [[aspirated consonant|aspirated]] цʰ {{IPAblink|ʰ|t͡sʰ}} survived in the [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug dialect]] and in other Circassian dialects it became [[plain consonant|plain]] ц {{IPAblink|t͡s}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]] and [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| wool || t͡sʰə || цʰы || t͡sʰə || цʰы || t͡sə || цы || t͡sə || цы
|-
| eyelash || nabzət͡sʰ || нэбзыцʰ || nabzət͡sʰ || нэбзыцʰ || nabzət͡s || нэбзыц || - || -
|}
 
* Proto-Circassian [[aspirated consonant|aspirated]] шʰ {{IPAblink|ʰ|ʃʰ}} survived in the [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug dialect]]. In other Adyghe dialects it became [[plain consonant|plain]] щ {{IPAblink|ɕ}} while in Kabardian it became [[plain consonant|plain]] ш {{IPAblink|ʃ}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]] and [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| milk || ʃʰa || шʰэ || ʃʰa || шʰэ || ɕa || щэ || ʃa || шэ
|-
| lame || ɬaːʃʰa || лъашʰэ || ɬaːʃʰa || лъашʰэ || ɬaːɕa || лъащэ || ɬaːʃa || лъашэ
|-
| salt || ʃʰəʁʷ || шʰыгъу || ʃʰəʁʷ || шʰыгъу || ɕəʁʷ || щыгъу || ʃəʁʷ || шыгъу
|-
| cloud || pʃʰa || пшʰэ || pʃʰa || пшʰэ || pɕa || пщэ || pʃa || пшэ
|-
| pus || ʃʰənə || шʰыны || ʃʰənə || шʰыны || - || - || ʃən || шын
|-
| accordion || pʃʰəna || пшʰынэ || pʃʰəna || пшʰынэ || pɕəna || пщынэ || pʃəna || пшынэ
|-
| fat || pʃʰarə || пшʰэры || pʃʰarə || пшʰэры || pɕarə || пщынэ || pʃar || пшэр
|-
| wax || ʃʰaxʷə || шʰэху || ʃʰafə || шʰэфы || - || - || ʃaxʷə || шэху
|}
 
*Proto-Circassian [[aspirated consonant|aspirated]] [[voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate]] ч [t͡ɕʰ] become plain чъ {{IPAblink|t͡ʂ}} in Temirgoy and aspirated чъʰ [t͡ʂʰ] in [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug dialect]], ш {{IPAblink|ʃ}} in the Abzakh dialect and щӏ {{IPAblink|ɕʼ}} in the Kabardian dialect.<ref name""=>[http://adygeya-republic.info/adyghe-language/detalno/foneticheskie-izmenenija-soglasnykh/spirantizacija-affrikat/ Спирантизация аффрикат]</ref>
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="8"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]]
! colspan="2"| [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| cold || t͡ɕʰəʔa || чьʰыӏэ || t͡ʂʰəʔa || чъʰыӏэ || t͡ʂəʔa || чъыӏэ || ʃəʔa || шыӏэ || t͡ɕəʔa || чьыӏэ || ɕʼəʔa || щбыӏэ
|}
 
*Proto-Circassian aspirated чʰ [t͡ʃʰ] become ш {{IPAblink|ʃ}} in most Adyghe and Kabardian dialects but become aspirated шʰ {{IPA|[ʃʰ]}} in [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]] and чь {{IPAblink|t͡ɕ}} in [[Besleney#Language|Baslaney]].
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Besleney#Language|Baslaney]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]] and [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| horse<br/>brother || t͡ʃʰə || чʰы || ʃʰə || шʰы || ʃə || шы || ʃə || шы || t͡ɕə || чьы
|-
| wedding || nəsaːt͡ʃʰa || нысачʰэ || nəsaːʃʰa || нысашʰэ || nəsaːʃa || нысашэ || nəsaːʃa || нысашэ || nəsaːt͡ɕa || нысачьэ
|-
| sister || t͡ʃʰəpχʷ || чʰыпхъу || ʃʰəpχʷ || шʰыпхъу || ʃəpχʷ || шыпхъу || ʃəpχʷ || шыпхъу || t͡ɕəpχʷ || чьыпхъу
|-
| sand || pt͡ʃʰaːχʷa || пчʰахъо || pʃʰaːχʷa || пшʰахъо || pʃaːχʷa || пшахъо || pʃaːχʷa || пшахъуэ || ||
|}
*Proto-Circassian aspirated кʰу [kʰʷ] survived in [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]] and in other Circassian dialects it became plain ку {{IPAblink|ʷ|kʷ}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]] and [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| middle || kʰʷə || кʰу ||kʰʷə || кʰу || kʷə || ку || kʷə || ку
|-
| thigh || kʰʷa || кʰо || kʰʷa || кʰо || kʷa || ко || kʷa || куэ
|}
 
====Tense consonants====
 
 
* Proto-Circassian [[plain consonant|plain]] [[voiceless alveolar stop]] т {{IPAblink|t}} become voiced д {{IPAblink|d}} in the Kabardian dialect.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]] and [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| we || ta || тэ || ta || тэ || ta || тэ || da || дэ
|-
| shoulder || taːma || тамэ || taːma || тамэ || taːma || тамэ || daːma || дамэ
|-
| sun || təʁa || тыгъэ || təʁa || тыгъэ || təʁa || тыгъэ || dəʁa || дыгъэ
|-
| Kabardian || qabartaːj || къэбэртай || qabartaːj || къэбэртай || qabartaːj || къэбэртай || qabardej || къэбэрдей
|-
| leader || tʰħamaːta || тʰхьэматэ || tħamaːta || тхьэматэ || tħamaːta || тхьэматэ || tħamaːda || тхьэмадэ
|-
| garden || xaːta || хатэ || xaːta || хатэ || xaːta || хатэ || xaːda || хадэ
|-
| rooster, cock || ataːqa || атакъэ || ataːqa || атакъэ || атакъэ || ataːqa || adaːqa || адакъэ
|-
| duck || pʰsəkʲat || псыкьэт || psət͡ʃat || псычэт || psəkʲat || псыкьэт|| psəd͡ʒad || псыджэд
|-
| silver || təʑən || тыжьын || təʑənə || тыжьыны || təʑən || тыжьын || dəʑən || дыжьын
|-
| yesterday || təʁʷaːsa || тыгъуасэ || təʁʷaːsa || тыгъуасэ || təʁʷaːsa || тыгъуасэ || dəʁʷaːsa || дыгъуасэ
|-
| wolf || təʁʷəʐ || тыгъужъ ||təʁʷəʐ || тыгъужъ|| təʁʷəʐ || тыгъужъ || dəʁʷəʑ || дыгъужъ
|-
| chicken || kʲat || кьэт || t͡ʃat || чэт || kʲat || кьэт || d͡ʒad || джэд
|-
| cat || kʲatəw || кьэтыу || t͡ʃatəw || чэтыу || kʲatəw || кьэтыу || d͡ʒadəw || джэдыу
|-
| hard || pəta || пытэ || pəta || пытэ || pəta || пытэ || bəda || быдэ
|}
 
* Proto-Circassian [[plain consonant|plain]] [[voiceless bilabial stop]] п {{IPAblink|p}} become voiced б {{IPAblink|b}} in the Kabardian dialect.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]] and [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| glass || ʔaːpkʲ || апкь || ʔaːpt͡ʃ || апч || ʔaːpkʲ || апкь || абдж || ʔaːbd͡ʒ
|-
| today || nəjapa || ныепэ || najpa || непэ|| napa || нэпэ || nawba || нобэ
|-
| thorn || paːna || панэ || paːna || панэ || ? || ? || baːna || банэ
|-
| hard || pəta || пытэ || pəta || пытэ || pəta || пытэ || bəda || быдэ
|-
| goat || pt͡ʃan || пчэн || pt͡ʃanə || пчэны || pt͡ʃan || пчэн || bʒan || бжэн
|-
| enemy || pəj || пый || pəj || пый || pəj || пый || bəj || бий
|-
| to count || pt͡ʂən || пчъын || pt͡ʂən || пчъын || pt͡ɕən || пчьын || bʒən || бжын
|}
 
* Proto-Circassian [[plain consonant|plain]] [[voiceless alveolar affricate]] ц [t͡s] become voiced дз {{IPAblink|d͡z}} in the Kabardian dialect.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="2"| Word
! colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="2"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| tooth || t͡sa || цэ || t͡sa || цэ || d͡za || дзэ
|-
| mouse || t͡səʁʷa || цыгъо || t͡səʁʷa || цыгъо || d͡zəʁʷa || дзыгъуэ
|-
| fish || pt͡saʐəja || пцэжъые || pt͡saʐəja || пцэжъые || bd͡zaʑəj || бдзэжьей
|-
| grass || wət͡sə || уцы || wət͡sə || уцы || wəd͡zə || удзы
|-
| green || wət͡səsʷa || уцысуэ || wət͡səɕʷa || уцышъо || wəd͡zəfa || удзыфэ
|}
 
*Proto-Circassian [[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate]] ч [t͡ʃ] become щ {{IPAblink|ɕ}} in the Abzakh dialect and ж {{IPAblink|ʒ}} in the Kabardian dialect.<ref name""=>[http://adygeya-republic.info/adyghe-language/detalno/foneticheskie-izmenenija-soglasnykh/spirantizacija-affrikat/ Спирантизация аффрикат]</ref>
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]] and [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| cow || t͡ʃam || чэм || t͡ʃamə || чэмы || ɕam || щэм || ʒam || жэм
|-
| spear || pt͡ʃə || пчы || pt͡ʃə || пчы || pɕə || пщы || bʒə || бжы
|-
| goat || pt͡ʃan || пчэн || pt͡ʃanə || пчэны || pɕanə || пщэны || bʒan || бжэн
|-
| village || t͡ʃəɮa || чылэ || t͡ʃəɮa || чылэ || ɕəla || щылэ || ʒəɮa || жылэ
|-
| night || t͡ʃaɕ || чэщ || t͡ʃaɕ || чэщ || ɕaɕə || щэщы || ʒaɕ || жэщ
|}
 
Proto-Circassian plain [[voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate]] ч [t͡ɕ] also become чъ {{IPAblink|t͡ʂ}} in the Temirgoy and Bzhedug dialect, ш {{IPAblink|ʃ}} in the Abzakh dialect but ж {{IPAblink|ʒ}} in the Kabardian dialect.<ref name""=>[http://adygeya-republic.info/adyghe-language/detalno/foneticheskie-izmenenija-soglasnykh/spirantizacija-affrikat/ Спирантизация аффрикат]</ref>
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="8"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]]
! colspan="2"| [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| to run || t͡ɕan || чьэн || t͡ʂan || чъэн || t͡ʂan || чъэн || ʃan || шэн || t͡ɕan || чьэн || ʒan || жэн
|}
 
*Proto-Circassian plain [[voiceless retroflex affricate]] чъ [t͡ʂ] become чь {{IPAblink|t͡ɕ}} in Shapsug and Abzakh, ж {{IPAblink|ʒ}} in the Kabardian and дж {{IPAblink|d͡ʒ}} in the [[Besleney#Language|Baslaney dialect]].
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="6"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Besleney#Language|Baslaney]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]]
! colspan="2"| [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]] and [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| tree || t͡ʂəɣə || чъыгы || t͡ʂəɣə || чъыгы || t͡ʂəɡə || чъыгы || t͡ɕəɣ || чьыг || ʒəɣ || жыг || d͡ʒəɣ || джьыг
|}
 
*Proto-Circassian plain ку [kʷ] became voiced гу [ɡʷ] in the Kabardian dialects :
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="2"| Word
! colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="2"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| twig || ? || ? || kʷaːma || куамэ || ? || ? || ɡʷaːna || гуанэ
|-
| group || kʷarta || кортэ || kʷart || корт || ? || ? || ɡʷarta || гуэрт
|-
| pitchfork || kʷaːχʷa || куахъо || kʷaːχʷa || куахъо || kʷaːχʷa || куахъо || ɡʷarta || гуахъуэ
|-
| wheat || kʷat͡s || коц || kʷat͡sə || коцы || kʷat͡s || коц || ɡʷad͡z || гуэдз
|-
| short || kʲʼaːkʷa || кӏьако || t͡ʃʼaːkʷa || кӏако || kʲʼaːkʷa || кӏьако || t͡ʃʼaːɡʷa || кӏагуэ
|}
 
===Other noticeable changes===
 
* Proto-Circassian [[palato-alveolar ejective affricate]] кӏ [tʃʼ] become a palatalized [[glottal stop]] ӏь [ʔʲ] in the Abzakh dialect and an [[alveolo-palatal ejective fricative]] щӏ [ɕʼ] in the Kabardain dialect.<ref name""=>[http://adygeya-republic.info/adyghe-language/detalno/soglasnye-bukvy/smychnye-soglasnye/perednejazychnye-mjagkie-shipjashchie-affrikaty-dzh-ch-k1/ Переднеязычные мягкие шипящие аффрикаты дж, ч, к1]</ref>
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| Word
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Besleney#Language|Baslaney]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]], [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]] and [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| young man, boy || t͡ʃʼaːɮa || кӏалэ || t͡ʃʼaːɮa || кӏалэ || ʔʲaːla || ӏьалэ || ɕʼaːɮa || щӏалэ || t͡ʃʼaːla || кӏалэ
|-
| guest || ħaːt͡ʃʼa || хьакӏэ || ħaːt͡ʃʼa || хьакӏэ || ħaːʔʲa || хьаӏьэ || ħaːɕʼa || хьащӏэ || ħaːt͡ʃʼa || хьакӏэ
|-
| few || maːt͡ʃʼa || макӏэ || maːt͡ʃʼa || макӏэ || maːʔʲa || маӏьэ || maːɕʼa || мащӏэ || maːt͡ʃʼa || макӏэ
|-
| to regret || t͡ʃʼaʁʷaʑən || кӏэгъожьын || t͡ʃʼaʁʷaʑən || кӏэгъожьын || ʔʲaʁʷaʑən || ӏьэгъожьын ||ɕʼaʁʷaʒən || щӏэгъуэжын || t͡ʃʼaʁʷaʑən || кӏэгъуэжьын
|-
| stands under || t͡ʃʼat || чӏэт || t͡ʃʼat || чӏэт || ʔʲat|| ӏьэт || ɕʼat || щӏэт || t͡ʃʼat || кӏэт
|-
| sits under || t͡ʃʼas || чӏэс || t͡ʃʼas || чӏэс || ʔʲas || ӏьэс || ɕʼas|| щӏэс || t͡ʃʼas || кӏэс
|-
| lies under || t͡ʃʼaɬ || чӏэлъ || t͡ʃʼaɬ || чӏэлъ || ʔʲaɬ || ӏьэлъ || ɕʼaɬ || щӏэлъ || t͡ʃʼaɬ || кӏэлъ
|-
| to ask || t͡ʃʼawpt͡ʃʼan || кӏэупчӏэн ||t͡ʃʼawpt͡ʃʼan || кӏэупчӏэн || ʔʲawpt͡ʃʼan || ӏьэупчӏэн || ɕʼawpt͡ʃʼan || щӏэупкӏэн || t͡ʃʼawpt͡ʃʼan || кӏэупчӏэн
|-
| fast || psənt͡ʃʼa || псынкӏэ || psənt͡ʃʼa || псынкӏэ || ? || ? || psənɕʼa || псынщӏэ || psənt͡ʃʼa || псынкӏэ
|}
 
*Proto-Circassian дж {{IPAblink|d͡ʒ}} survived in the Adyghe diaelcts, but became ж {{IPAblink|ʒ}} in the Kabardian dialect. Proto-Circassian джь {{IPAblink|d͡ʑ}} became дж {{IPAblink|d͡ʒ}} in Adyghe and жь {{IPAblink|ʑ}} in Kabardian. The дж {{IPAblink|d͡ʒ}} in Kabardian derives from Proto-Circassian plain кь {{IPAblink|k|kʲ}} and гь {{IPAblink|ɡ|ɡʲ}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="2"| Word
! colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="2"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| friend || nəbd͡ʑaʁʷ || ныбджьэгъу || nəbd͡ʒaʁʷ || ныбджэгъу || nəbʑaʁʷ || ныбжьэгъу
|-
| fox || baːd͡ʒa || баджэ || baːd͡ʒa || баджэ || baːʒa || бажэ
|-
| arch, bridge || ɬaməd͡ʒ || лъэмыдж || ɬaməd͡ʒ || лъэмыдж || ɬaməʒ || лъэмыж
|-
| flour || ħad͡ʒəʁa || хьэджыгъэ || ħaːd͡ʒəʁa || хьаджыгъэ || ħaʒəʁa || хьэжыгъэ
|-
| knee || ɬaɡʷaːnd͡ʒa || лъэгуанджэ || ɬaɡʷaːnd͡ʒa || лъэгуанджэ || ɬaɡʷaːnʒa || лъэгуанжэ
|-
| village|| qʷaːd͡ʒa || къуаджэ || qʷaːd͡ʒa || къуаджэ || qʷaːʒa || къуажэ
|}
 
*Proto-Circassian palatalized [[voiceless uvular fricative]] хъь [χʲ] become хь {{IPAblink|ħ}} in most Adyghe dialects and in some Kabardian dialects it became to хъ {{IPAblink|χ}}.
 
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="2"| Word
! colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! colspan="2"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| more || naχʲ || нэхъь || naːħ || нахь || naχ || нэхъ
|-
| older brother || ʃənaχʲəʐ || шынэхъьыжъ || ʃənaħəʐ || шынахьыжъ || ʃənaχəʑ || шынэхъыжь
|-
| younger brother || ʃənaχʲət͡ʃʼ || шынэхъьыкӏ || ʃənaħət͡ʃ || шынахьыкӏ || ʃənaχəɕʼ || шынэхъыщӏ
|}
 
==Grammar==
 
=== Noun instrumental case ===
 
The suffix that was added for instrumental case nouns was -мгьэ (-mɡʲa) or -гьэ (-gʲa). In most western and eastern Circassian dialects it became -мкӏэ (-mt͡ʃa) or -кӏэ (-t͡ʃa) (e.g. [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]], Temirgoy and literary Kabardian), while in some other dialects (e.g. Bzhedug) it became -мджэ (-md͡ʒa) or -джэ (-d͡ʒa).
 
For example:
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! rowspan=2| Meaning
! colspan=2| Proto-Circassian
! colspan=2| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]]
! colspan=2| Most dialects
! colspan=2| [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
|-
!Cyrillic
!IPA
!Cyrillic
!IPA
!Cyrillic
!IPA
!Cyrillic
!IPA
|-
! (using) Adyghe language
| адыгэбзэгьэ
| aːdəɣabzagʲa
| адыгэбзэгьэ
| aːdəɣabzagʲa
| адыгэбзэкӀэ
| aːdəɣabzat͡ʃa
| адыгэбзэджэ
| aːdəɣabzad͡ʒa
|-
! with (using) the pencil
| къэлэмымгьэ
| qalaməmgʲa
| къэлэмымгьэ
| qalaməmgʲa
| къэлэмымкIэ
| qalaməmt͡ʃa
| къэлэмымджэ
| qalaməmd͡ʒa
|}
 
===Numbers===
{| class="IPA wikitable" border="1" text-align="right"
! rowspan="3"| English
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| Proto-Circassian
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Ubykh language|Ubykh]]
! colspan="4"| [[Adyghe language|Adyghe]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Kabardian language|Kabardian]]
! rowspan="2" colspan="2"| [[Besleney#Language|Baslaney]]
|-
! colspan="2"| [[Temirgoy]] and [[Bzhedug Adyghe dialect|Bzhedug]]
! colspan="2"| [[Shapsug Adyghe dialect|Shapsug]] and [[Abzakh Adyghe dialect|Abzakh]]
|-
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
! IPA
! Cyrillic
|-
| One || zə || зы || za || зэ || zə || зы || zə || зы || zə || зы || zə || зы
|-
| Two || tʷʼə || тӏу || tʼqʷʼa || ткъӏуа || tʷʼə || тӏу || tʷʼə || тӏу || tʼəw || тӏу || ? || тӏу
|-
| Three || ɕə || щы || ʂa || шъа || ɕə || щы ||ɕə || щы || ɕə || щы || ɕə || щы
|-
| Four || pt͡ɬʼə || птлӏы || pʼɬʼə || плӏы || pɬʼə || плӏы || pɬʼə || плӏы || pɬʼə || плӏы || pt͡ɬʼə || птлӏы
|-
| Five || txʷə || тху || ɕxə || щхы || tfə || тфы || tfə || тфы || txʷə || тху || txʷə || тху
|-
| Six || xə || хы || fə || фы || xə || хы || xə || хы || xə || хы || xə || хы
|-
| Seven || bɮə || блы || blə || бльы || bɮə || блы || blə || бльы || bɮə || блы || blə || бльы
|-
| Eight || jə || и || ʁʷa || гъуа || jə || и || jə || и || jə || и || jə || и
|-
| Nine || bʁʷə || бгъу || bʁʲə || бгъьу || bʁʷə || бгъу || bʁʷə || бгъу || bʁʷə || бгъу || bʁʷə || бгъу
|-
| Ten || pʃʼə || пшӏы || ʑʷə || жъуы || pʃʼə || пшӏы || pʃʼə || пшӏы || pɕʼə || пщӏы || pʃʼə || пшӏы
|}
 
==See also==
* [[Proto Abkhaz-Abaza]]
* [[Proto-Northwest Caucasian language]]
 
==References==
*STAROSTIN, Sergei A.; NIKOLAYEV, Sergei L. (1994). A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary: [http://starling.rinet.ru/Texts/caucpref.pdf Preface].
 
[[Категориэ:Адыгэбзэр]]
[[Category:Proto-languages|Circassian]]
[[Category:Northwest Caucasian languages]]
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